This practice indicated the heightening patriarchy of Islam. In the Incan civilization, cities also held cultural importance as they were sites of large, ornate temples. Additionally, the Byzantines influenced the importance of Kiev in Russia as a commercial city due to its position connecting Constantinople to the fur trade in Novgorod and Scandinavia.
Their sons would be given a full education and they would be treated as nobles. These people controlled the Incan Empire, and many of them lived in Cuzco. This practice of land distribution for the agricultural use of peasant families kept a disproportionate amount of land from falling into the hands of local aristocrats, thus preventing peasant revolts and the formation of local power bases.
Under Mayta Capac the Inca began to expand, attacking and looting the villages of neighbouring peoples and probably assessing some sort of tribute. Regional differences in trade include the type of goods traded in the regions influenced by the Islamic world.
The capabilities of champa rice to increase production would be even more profoundly embraced by the Song dynasty, which produced massive agricultural surpluses that fueled intense urbanization. On the Swahili Coast, influenced by Islam, bulk items like spices were transported across Indian Ocean routes.
Labor was organized in Feudal Western Europe as a system of coerced labor, a means of forcing a subordinate to do work for a superior, known as Serfdom.
This was part of the creation of the "Inca highway," which was used for wars, transportation of goods, and other purposes. Between andone factor which increased commercial activity was the creation of forms of currency, issued and legitimized by a government.
The south-pointing needle, or compass, originated in China and was utilized by Muslim maritime merchant who allowed for its spread to other areas across Eurasia. During Song rule, Confucianism changed to become more actively patriarchal, with increased suppression of the role of women in society.
The religion of Islam greatly facilitated trade wherever it spread because it was welcoming of merchants and its Sharia law protected the endeavors of merchants. A policy of forced resettlement of large contingents from each conquered people helped ensure political stability by distributing ethnic groups throughout the empire and thus making the organization of revolt very difficult.
In the Byzantine empire, the emperor, endowed with both religious and political power, held the highest societal status, and under him in social status were generals who were in charge of a military district and oversaw the administration and defense of a province, or theme.
The Inca religion combined features of animismfetishismand the worship of nature gods. Many short rock tunnels and vine-supported suspension bridges were constructed. The introduction of systems of banking and credit further increased commercial activity by allowing merchants to borrow from a future profit to make present transactions, increasing the rate of commerce.
The chinampa system of agriculture allowed for the cultivation of maize, beans, squash, tomatoes, and peppers in the wetland environment of the lake upon which the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, was built. The pantheon was headed by Intithe sun godand included also Viracochaa creator god and culture hero, and Apu Illaputhe rain god.
Some of these new life forms headed for Cuzco, later the greatest city of the Incas. All parts of Incan life were supervised by Incan officials. This protection of trade and the introduction of economic unity to the area increased the efficiency of the trade of furs, timber, and fish from the area.
Inca technology and architecture were highly developed, although not strikingly original. Below the governors were the local officials. The massive agricultural surpluses produced led to a population surge in China from about 45 million people during the Sui dynasty to million during Song rule.
Inca society was highly stratified. Postal services were set up with runners who delivered messages, as tied knots and packages between major cities.
In this system, the lowest class, known as Serfs, worked a certain plot of land as a form of tax under the rule of a Lord who protected them with a class of knights in return for their labor.
These elites used intermediaries in a bureaucracy to rule their vast empire. These people had great powers; they could organize troops, collect tribute and establish law and order.
The Incas had a well trained and well organized army. Huayna Capac pushed the northern boundary of the empire to the Ancasmayo River before dying in an epidemic that may have been brought by a tribe from the east that had picked it up from the Spanish at La Plata.
It comprised two north-south roads, one running along the coast for about 2, miles 3, kmthe other inland along the Andes for a comparable distance, with many interconnecting links. This Inca also owned all land across the empire, theoretically at least, and extended his power to his subjects through an elaborate bureaucratic system.
The lower class which was obedient to a general controlling a theme consisted of free peasants, who served as soldiers under the general in exchange for land. The people inhabiting its surroundings had insulted the great god in some way so he destroyed them, and cast them into stone.
The formation of caravanserai along the Silk Roads improved caravan trade by giving traveling merchant caravans a place to rest and swap animals for the next leg of their journey if needed, as well as providing merchants with food and water in the extreme conditions of central asia.
Genghis Khan organized fighting men into an arban, a group of ten soldiers who lived, fought, and trained together, and he purposefully chose men for an arban that were members of different tribes.Inca Empire Essays: OverInca Empire Essays, Inca Empire Term Papers, Inca Empire Research Paper, Book Reports.
ESSAYS, term and research papers available for UNLIMITED access Order plagiarism free custom written essay All essays are written from scratch by professional writers according to your instructions and delivered to. The Inca Empire reigned from untilspread out through the entire western coast of South America.
The emire stretched as far north as southern Colombia and Ecuador, included all of Peru and Bolivia as well as northwestern Argentina and northern Chile/5(1). Economically, Mesoamerican cities facilitated trade, as is seen in the connection of the Incan capital of Cuzco to all other parts of the empire via an elaborate system of roads and bridges.
At the height of its power, the Incan empire also had four provincial governments and a central government, which was run by nobles. Aztec civilization government was a collection of city-states (7 areas with individual rulers who distributed everything) whose people spoke a common language.
- The Incan empire was the largest empire to ever exist in pre-Columbian America. It lasted for about a century during the times of to and its advanced architectural monuments in Machu Picchu are a great fascination and mystery to many people.
The Incas And Their Empires History Essay. Print Reference this. Disclaimer: The empire was divided in regions in which all of them meet at the capital, Cusco.
The term Inca means emperor or lord in Quechua, and it was used towards the privileged family, Viracochas’ children. The spectacular site of the former Inca Empire is in the.Download